gorn – heart smithy
Consider the main apparatus and equipment Smithy, tools. heart smithy – GORN. In forge the preform heating is carried, forging or finished product by heat treatment, eg: hardening. In the early stages of development of craft forge served as an open roaster with a small “Gornova jack”, equipped with hand-blowing. Such an arrangement is not all metals could be heated to forging temperature. Later, horn represented adobe, less stone structure. Part of the mountain is combined with a casting furnace. As fuel used for the hearth charcoal hardwood, peat, later – coal. Also, today there are gas burners for small forgings.
For inflating the air horn blowers used FUR. The air supply is required to enhance the combustion of coal. The required temperature 800-1500 * C – depending on the operations carried out and the steel grade. Bellows were a wooden arch covered with leather “a harmonica”, have manual or treadle. Directly into the furnace was supplied clay nozzle. “operators” big fur, usually, boys were apprentices, which incidentally vpriglyadku learned the basics skills. Most two skins used simultaneously for a continuous supply of air. small fur “fine adjustment” He ran the blacksmith himself with the help of the feet. modern fur – This system electrofans.
Blacksmith manual HAMMER – sledgehammer weight 4-12 kg. Manual hammer wielded striker. His work was difficult not only physically. The bear was obliged not only to possess various techniques blow (distinguish between the elbow, brachial, mounted punches), but also to understand poluzhesta blacksmith requirements, forging process control. Using a small hammer – handbrake blacksmith indicates Hammerstrike and where, and how, and the force with which to apply the next blow. And handbrake, and hammers vary in shape head, form working (combat) surface, format ass, weight. Более 30 different-sized hammers, Molotkov, hammers and sledgehammers most bizarre, for the uninitiated, Forms can be counted in the arsenal of a blacksmith.
Among them there is a universal, and highly specialized tool. At the current production of forged products perform the role of blacksmith hammers and pneumatic press. The most common media with the mass of the incident 75-400 kg. Referring to the attention of modern artistic blacksmiths, need to mark, that their work is still manual. Variety rolled steel, Pneumatic and electric tools allowed at times to increase production, facilitating a primary rough machining of the workpieces. The artistic value of the forged products acquire only after, as a master manually forms his idea. In this case, a blacksmith uses a tool and forging techniques, which was successfully used by our great-great-great-great…
The working surface of the anvil is called “face”. Facial produced forging. classically, the most common embodiment,, Anvil has more “horn”, “tylnik”, а также “legs” or “wedge”. Horn is a blacksmith for otkovki all sorts of bends. Tylnik has, usually, some through holes of different shapes. They are used for punched holes and install auxiliary blacksmith tools. When the legs help or wedge anvil mounted on the deck. There are many special anvils and regulations for specific forging operations: broach, draft, sag, Cutting, kolchenie, forming, etc.. Dwell on their design is impractical.
A special place among the large blacksmith's tools take TICKS. Form mites sponges should fully conform to the shape and size of the cross section of the workpiece. In fact, for each type and size used rolled steel – its tongs. With their aid farrier pulls out the hearth burning or forging blank and holds it during forging. From blacksmith tongs quality, without exaggeration, It depends on personal safety smith, blacksmith and scrap in the process of forging. It is worth mentioning, that farriers themselves to this day, and only the, manufacture and service your tools. In a constantly used the arsenal of modern blacksmith 20-40 various mites.
By specialized forging tools should include: a chisel blade with a different shape, пробойники, subsidence, floats, rolling, blacksmith scissors, Nailing, furrow, bending forks… List, trust, It is very long, reference listing, shock, underlay, special and auxiliary tools blacksmith arsenal. With the support and percussion instruments, we briefly reviewed: this – anvils and hammers.
“Plain” call tool, which acts on the preform, assuming a hammer blow, as if placed under the blow. Outstanding representatives of this family – chisels and punches.
It is necessary to highlight the pair shim tool, having a TN. “paint” (top part) and “grandmother” (Bottom part), often a tool called modern blacksmiths “hlopuškoj”. Doubles tool is used to crimp, distillation or alignment prescribed shapes forgings, eg: cylinder, квадрата, polyhedra.
Some kinds of artistic decorative textures is also performed using firecrackers. In the forge of a huge amount of the slip tool.
Special tools – is forging tools for bending, twist (torsirovki), forming forgings. example: bending forks. Usually, they are installed in the holes and permit the anvil to bend the blacksmith heated preform in a furnace to an arbitrary or predetermined angle. Some forks design provides the ability to simultaneously edit (straightening) workpiece on the anvil by the hammer.
Torsirovka – has twisting material around its longitudinal axis. For these purposes, reversible, and in modern blacksmith forges the rescue comes the electric drive.
The auxiliary tool blacksmith uses for maintenance and prevention of its uneasy, as we found out, economy.
Forging an auxiliary tool
It requires special care horn. For cleaning and preparation for operation of the blacksmith needed pokers, shovel, peaks and curling sintered slag, scrapers to clean the socket furnaceman, Metelka and t.d. A number of specialized support tools used for surgical repair of the main equipment.
Quite specific and measuring tools of a blacksmith by virtue of, that work takes place with hot metal. In addition to widespread and well-known blacksmith uses Meryl shrinkage and contour patterns, calibration comb, control bracket.
Bench tool is also accompanied by a blacksmith centuries. Once used for drilling metal bow-shaped tool. Grindstones have a manual or foot-operated actuator. The design of files over the centuries has undergone visible changes.
VICE blacksmith, Vice metalwork, clamp. It makes no sense to focus on the scope of the bench screw and clamps. Forging vise distinguishes special strength, since they are intended for fixing the glow workpiece and processing it by means of shock, ie. shoeing. Of course, vise, as the mechanical design, used for forging small products.