Forging have wide application: forged products used in everyday life, make our lives safer, serving as guards, decorate the house and garden. Window bars, railings, fences, stairs, indoor and garden furniture, decoration and flower – all blacksmith work, artistic forging. Today, manual art forging metal does not hand over positions, withstanding the onslaught of technology and machining.
This is not an easy skill will submit even a little of the, who is not afraid of hard physical labor and is able to be creative. So, Who, Nevertheless, I decided to learn this ancient craft should familiarize yourself with the technology and working with metal, as well as the basic properties of steels, minimal equipment and forge initial tools.
metal forging: general concepts and terms
metal forging – process of machining a metal workpiece by pressing. purpose – imparting the desired shape of the workpiece, size, density. Intermediate products and semi-finished products called forging.
Artistic forging – creature, above described method, household items, decorative and applied products having any artistic value. Of course, formulation of a generalized and rather vague, but leave it to the conscience of the compilers of dictionaries. That is beautiful or original, where you can see the work and soul (so what to eat) master – then and there – artistic forging. deal?..
Forging hand and machine.
Forging is divided into manual and machine forging. First used in the industry, It involves the use of compressed air,steam or hydraulic presses, as the primary means of production. It can be as hot, and Cold. Cold forging is possible in the engine embodiment, tk. use mechanical hammers with the mass of the incident to 8000 kg press and attached to force up 200 kg·m / s2. Weight workpiece in the processing can reach tens of tons. forging machine, basically, It is used for high-volume products (for example, holodnokovanye Wheels), and made it to die (cm. ниже).
hand-forged – art work. The main processes are handmade blacksmith, as the name implies. Of course, Today the master assisted by pneumatic hammers. They replaced the blacksmith.
Free forging and die.
Kovka the press – mediated effect on punch workpiece, where “flow” metal matrix restricted. It serves for duplicating parts specified parameters.
Free forging – a direct impact on the forging, which “flows” free. She, basically, used in the products of artistic forging, It gives maximum scope for creativity in the production of short runs and unique works.
Cold and hot forging.
To distinguish between two kinds of forging – hot and cold. Though, Refer to the manual, You can read the definition of “high-temperature metal processing processes, heated to forging temperature”. Forging temperature depends on physical and chemical composition of metal, steel or alloy. The ability to correctly identify it is extremely important to the success of, especially in the manufacture of parts with small tolerances in size or with high demands on strength, density. Operating temperature at different metals ranges from 400 ° C (aluminium) to 1800 ° C (titanium alloys). Forging a metal heating allows the forging of any complexity, using a lot of forging techniques. Upon heating the preform becomes relatively ductile, allowing “mock” above oneself. Through hot forging are true works of art. Heated to a specific temperature are forged almost all metals, alloys and steels; processed large parts and steel products of large section. Products art forged in a heated state can give a different texture: bark imitation, incisions, furrow, dents. Cold forging steels manually embodiment not applicable. This term is a substitution of concepts cultivated artificially to increase sales and prices primitive weldments, made using machine tools and hand tools by bending prepared rolled steel. Hand-forged steel without heating in an industrial scale is not possible, because of, in the absence of stress shock preform surface will have excessive strength with respect to the processed. Simply put, by ricochet forgings very quickly will be destroyed and equipment and smith. In this way: manual “cold forging” nothing is forged, and in relation to the hand-forged, term “cold forging” is an, по сути, slovobludiem. For such products, there jargon, which perfectly reflects the phonetic and associative artistic value of the product – gnuto.
Materials for forging
Various metals are used for making decorative articles and applied art forging method, which is an important characteristic of malleability. High ductility are copper and its alloys. The lowest ductility have structural and tool steel with a high carbon content. The best ratio of strength and ductility for the production of useful products in a life forged from mild steel (C content to 0,2%). Also, reasonable price distinguishes metal of steel or lattice gates of bronzes and made of copper. Modern steel bars spoils novice blacksmiths wide choice of shapes and size range. You can purchase a strip, rods, squares, 6-You and 8-migranniki, wire, Professor. pipe etc.
Of course, marching temporary forge can be organized in a field, but by that whether you are seeking. For the serious year-round work space required to meet the minimum requirements for safety, вентиляции, fire safety. Putting less 45-50 кв.м. suitable except for a creative workshop, for the production of small craft. Workplace blacksmith should be the least 15 sq.m., that is, at least in the space within 2 m. on the anvil. Horn takes to heat the metal 8-12 кв.м. considering approaches thereto. Plus a place in the assembly table, plates for straightening, press, sharpener, racks for mandrels and tools, material warehouse, location of fire extinguishing agents. A few win space can be organized for post weld assembly of products on the street, better under the canopy. The use of mechanization – forging hammers and presses – It requires compliance with certain mandatory rules. It needs some major foundations and brick walls, as well as bases for autonomous pneumatic hammers and presses, which create tangible vibration. Neglect of safety rules in the smithy is unacceptable, since the equipment used can be a danger not only to health, but also the lives of careless human. next time: purge ventilation. Working conditions and the use of hot shop welding exclude the possibility of neglect of room ventilation. It is better to involve professionals, because this issue is extremely important. Besides, personal enforcement hoods must be installed on the mountain and the posts from the stationary cutter power tools. Products of artistic forging is required to clean and paint. Staining on the desktop uncomfortable and unsafe, hence the need room (or space outdoors) or the third party in color.
Summarize. The room for the production of artistic forging, calculated on a blacksmith with a nominal welding station and minimal mechanization, must be 50-70 sq.m.. The structure must be capital, one-story, with a ceiling height of 3,5 m., with high-quality ventilation. It can not be an extension and even border on residential buildings or offices were. It is necessary to three-phase electricity, desirable water. Required unhindered access of medical and fire services. The requirement that the list of best, of course, correspond to the factory shop.
Initial equipment and instruments
Art kovkaGorn – burning heart smithy. He represents the furnace for heating billets, equipped with an electric fan for controllably injecting air into the combustion zone. The dimensions of the hearth depends on the size of the workpieces. To work with a limited set of rolled or small workpiece can confine the gas stove (of course, not home, 4-burners, and special blacksmith). The most common horn fossil coal. Carbon horn dimensional preform allows heat, as well as to heat the desired portion or fragment. The operating temperature of the hearth 900-1800 ° C.. Master art forging preform determine the willingness of incandescence(discolouration) steels, special temperature measurements, usually, are not made.
Pneumatic forging hammer is used to free forging and forging dies on the backer. The most common hammers with falling parts by weight 40 before 150 kg. and the rate of 110 before 250 beats per minute (reverse accordance).
Art kovkaNakovalnya – directly workplace smith. The most convenient for the majority of two-horned anvil forging operations. It has a rounded horn, Flat ohvostok and technological holes square and round shapes. A circular hole is designed to hook and the workpiece is a seat for the breakdown, and in the square hole mounted auxiliary tool. The working surface is called cynical – face.
Straightening plate – surface material for leveling and straightening products. It is bound to be the reference level. Apply Plate maximum hardmetals – appointment obliges. The thicker the plate, so it is more reliable and last longer smith. Minimum size 300h500h50 mm.
The assembly table is needed, if not limited by the size of tiny crafts. It produced welded and Smith. May be the worktop metal, DSP, plywood, boards. The most common product of artistic forging – It is different fences, piece of furniture, home decorations and exterior, sculptures – “on his knees” they do not gather.
Hammers, and bench-hammers – basic tools of a blacksmith. To ensure that you have set “lying down well in hand”. The novice master manual art forging needed, как минимум: 1-2 sledgehammers weighing 4-9 кг., 2-3 hammer weight 1,5-3 кг., 2-3 handbrake (stress on the first syllable) weight 0,5-2 kg. The intended use is think to explain it is not necessary, but it should be noted, that quality requirements become singular. It is also important characteristics of the hardness of the hammer and the tailgate. Impact Tool reliability depends largely on the health of the blacksmith.
To begin to forge, you should be able to forge. Here is such a nonsense. The fact, that all the tools of art forging blacksmith, usually, He makes himself, including punches with an array of high-carbon steels, shaped hammers and shperaki.
Art kovkaFasonnye hammers – special tools for specific forging operations. These include: Podsečki, floats, teeth, beard and a lot more then. Shaped hammers are both shock (which strike the forging), and backer (which is located at forging hammer or other impact hammer).
Art kovkaShperaki – This small anvil on the anvil. Непонятно? This is such a special tool specialization, which has “leg” and fixed in a square hole at the operating anvil. They play the role of the contoured surface with fine work with small forging. For various in-line operations blacksmith makes them for himself in order to facilitate the production of mass-produced parts. Sometimes this tool is so bizarre forms, that the appointment was not immediately clear.
Pliers need to extract the workpiece from the crucible and holding it on the anvil during forging. Some operations on the pneumatic hammer is also taking place with retention of forgings in ticks – it is dangerous and requires highly skilled craftsmen. Under each material made its tongs, because it is very important reliable capture details.
Plugs and Grips, templates and mandrel – auxiliary tool, which over the years accumulated a blacksmith “the number of the legion”. Under different angles and bend radius, a specific number of turns of the helix, under reverse angles and turns, for materials of all sections and shapes – separate mandrel. If blacksmith hard to part with the old, and sometimes not necessary, things, they forge, inevitably, mired in longstanding patterns and forks, among hundreds of which will be impossible to find the right device. All auxiliary tools, usually, It is installed on the anvil. With continued use can be stationary fixed on the frame. Of course this is not all, and sufficient surfactant. More closely acquainted with the profession need to personally and on examples. Better to start with exhibitions of art forging and showrooms blacksmith products. We hope – This text was someone useful. The manager can become a senior manager, “podsidev” predecessor, a blacksmith just bloody blisters seeking mastered the art forging metal. dare – and will… should have.